Khiva / Khorezm / Madrasahs / Information / Description

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• Ichan-Kala
     • Abdulla Khan Madrasah (1855)
     • Abdurasulbay Madrasah (1906)
     • Allah Kuli Madrasah (1834 to 1835)
     • Amir Tura Madrasah (1870)
     • Arab Muhammad Khan Madrasah (1616. 1838)
     • Atajanbay Madrasah (1884)
     • Dost Alyam Madrasah (1882)
     • Hajash Marama Madrasah (1839)
     • Hojashberdibiya Madrasah (1688-1834)
     • Islam Khodja Madrasah (1910)
     • Kazy Kalyan Madrasah (1905)
     • Matniyaz Devan-begi Madrasah (1871)
     • Matpanabay Madrasah (1905)
     • Matrasulboy Mirzaboshi Madrasah (1905)
     • Mazari Sharif Madrasah (1882)
     • Muhamad Amin Inaq Madrasah (1785)
     • Muhammad Amin Khan Madrasah (1855)
     • Muhammad Rakhimkhan II Madrasah (1871)
     • Musa Tura Madrasah (1841)
     • Qutlugh Murad Inaq Madrasah (1804 to 1812)
     • Shergazi Khan Madrasah (1718 to 1726)
     • Tolib Makhsum Madrasah (1910)
     • Yaqubbai Khodja Madrasah (1873)
     • Yusuf Yassaulbashi (1906)

• Dishan-Kala
     • Bikanjan Bika Madrasah (1894)
     • Khorezmshakh Madrasah (1915)
     • Mamat Maram Madrasah (1903)
     • Palvan Kari Madrasah (1905)
     • Sayid Muhammad Khan Madrasah (1864)
     • Tort Shavvaz Madrasah (1885)

• Khiva District
     • Ibrahim Khodja Madrasah (1888)

The Madrasah is located on the western side of Aq mosque. It was built by Abdulla Khan's mother in 1855 in honor of Murad Inaq's son who had been killed at the age of 17 in the fight against Turkmen yomuds. The Madrasah was constructed with a lot of deviations from the canonic madrasah design. Rectangular when viewed from above, with guldasta towers on the corners, is elongated along the east-west direction and symmetrical on the whole. Contrary to the custom, there are two entrances to the madrasah.

The Madrasah is adjoining the southeastern corner of Yar Muhammad Divan Mosque. It was built with the money of Abdurasulbay, nephew of Muhammad Niyaz Mirzabashi (Kamil Khorezmi), a great poet, composer and translator. The Madrasah is elongated along the east-west direction. The entrance part, placed in the center between two yards, consists of two longitudinally oriented domed sections with side exits to Madrasah yards. Two Abdurasulbay's deceased daughters were buried in two hujras.

The madrasah is located in the space between the tim and the eastern gate Palvan-Darvaza. Its main facade faces the yard of Hojashberdibiy Madrasah. Viewed from above, the madrasah is a rectangle with a four-ayvan two-storey yard and beveled corners. Several hudjras of the first floor above the vestibule housed the municipal library founded by Allah Kuli, which provided books for students from all Khiva madrasahs. The library was maintained at the account of income from Caravanserai and Allah Kuli Khan's tim. While there is nothing particular in the Allah Khan Madrasah architecture, it is quite impressive due to the concentrated it of the main and yard facades. Predominant is Khorezm-type majolica in dark-white and blue colors; pictures in black contours are in tympanums as well as in the frames of the double arcade and three quarter columns of the portal.

Located in the north part of Ichan-Kala in Tashpolatov Street, it was built by Muhammad Rahimkhan's I son Amir Tura, brother of Sayyid Muhammad Rahimkhan II. Amir Tura was granted a high position of Amirul-ulamo, i.e., leader of ulamo. The madrasah is a large-sized building, two-storied on the facade side and one-storey construction in the yard. It is rectangular when viewed from above, with four guldastas on the corners, and oriented along the longitudinal axis in the west-east direction. The facade was not decorated because Russian troops invaded Khiva. The building was restored in 1983.

This madrasah is located to the west of Muhammad Amin Inaq Madrasah. Initially there was a small carcass-type madrasah built by a famous Khiva woman. Arab Muhammad Khan bought this madrasah from this woman together with the adjacent land and in 1616 built a new one-storey madrasah of baked bricks to commemorate the fact of Khiva becoming the capital of Khorezm instead of Kuya Urgench. As the building became dilapidated, in 1838 during the reign of Allah Kuli Khan it was reconstructed in the manner typical for late Khiva madrasahs. Presently it is a one-yard, two-storey symmetric building. The main entrance is marked by a strict portal. Cylinder-shaped guldasta towers with arched lanterns are erected at the corners. The winter hall of the mosque is in the northwestern corner while the summer mosque is at the longitudinal axis facing the yard.

It is located between Mazari Sharif Madrasah and Russian school. It built by a prosperous Khiva's landowner Atajanbay. The Madrasah has an irregular design. Its contour is sub rectangular viewed from above, elongated in transverse direction from the east to the west, asymmetrical with respect to the entrance in the southern wall. Adjacent to its northwestern wall is Mazari Sharif Madrasah; there is internal passage between the two. These two madrasahs look like a single complex.

It is located in front of the northeastern corner of Arabkhan Madrasah. The Madrasah was built with the money of Dost Alyam, a jurist at the court of Khiva's Khan Muhammed Rahimkhan II. Mostly jurists and lawyers were trained at the Madrasah. It is a small one-storey building, rectangular when viewed from above, with guldasta towers on the corners and elongated in transverse direction with respect to the central north-south axis. Khudaybergen Haji supervised the construction and Kalandar Kochim was the foreman. Presently the Madrasah houses a woodcarving shop.

Hajash Marama Madrasah or Hojash Makhram, located at the western side Dzhuma mosque, was co stricter by Hojash Makhram, one of Allah Kuli Khan's advisors. It is comparatively small one storey asymmetrically designed building with protruding darskhana room at the northeaster corner. The madrasah consists of a yard surrounded by 12 hudjras, darskhana, winter and summer mosques. It does not follow the canonic design for this type of buildings.

It was erected in 1688 in Ichan-Kala near the eastern gate Palvan-Darvaza in front of Allah Kuli Khan Madrasah. In 1834 Allah Kuli Khan constructed a new big madrasah, and the existing one was partially pulled down and radically rebuilt. As a result, two small yards formed, and the private madrasah got another name - Hurjun - because it resembled a leather saddlebag called hurjun. The madrasah consists of two yards of different size, a darvaza khana separating them, 16 hujras and domed square-shaped room - darskhana. The madrasah is decorated with carved front doors where the date of its initial construction can be found.

It is located next to Islam Khodja minaret. It was built with the money of Isfandiyar Khan's minister Islam Khodja. Masters Bolta Vaisov and Madaminov from the kishlak Madyr decorated it with glazed tiles comprising the pictures made by master Ish-Muhammad Khudayberdiyev. Islam Khodja Madrasah is a special architectural complex reflecting the influence of time and spirit of ethnic craftsmen's creative inspiration. Rather small maze of constructions manages to include a complicated space of the Madrasah with 42 hujras, a large domed hall and a tall minaret. The architect's skills can be seen in the ability to create a contrast combination of architectural forms carefully using the limited area. That is why hujras arch is not prominent, side towers are thin and the yard is small in size. The mikhrab niche of the mosque is decorated with majolica and carved ganch.

It is located in front of the northwestern corner of Dzhuma Mosque. It was built by Salim Akhun, Khan's Chief Judge. Though this Madrasah is not as large and beautiful as others, it used different education methods. In addition to religious disciplines it taught law and taxation, i.e., legal sciences. Presently there is a Museum of the Musical Art of Khorezm.

It is located in front of the eastern walls of Muhammad Rahimkhan Madrasah. It was erected by Muhammad Rahimkhan II's finance minister (devan begi) Muhammad Niyaz. The Madrasah is rectangular, oriented along the longitudinal axis in west-east direction. The main facade, which faces Muhammad Rahimkhan Madrasah is traditional: a high portal with a pentahedral niche in the center with guldastas on the corners. The portal is decorated with majolica; guldasta domes are covered I with small green bricks, and the foundations, with blue, white and green bricks in I geometric patterns. The Madrasah consists of 10 hujras, darskhana, winter and summer mosques.

The Madrasah is located in the northern part of Dzhuma mosque. It was built with the money of one of Khan Matpanabay's officials. The construction was supervised by Khudaybergen Khodja and Kalandar Kochim. When viewed from above, the Madrasah has sub rectangular shape and is symmetrical with respect to the central east-west axis, with the exception of one detail: there is a room missing in the north-western corner. The main facade is emphasized with a small portal and unpronounced relief of the niche arcade separation.

It is located opposite the western walls of Shirghazi Khan Madrasah. It was built by Muhammad Rasul Mirzabashi, the son of poet and composer Muhammad Niyaz Mirzabashi (Kamil Khorezmi). Muhammad Rasul Mirzabashi was born in 1839, received primary education from his father Kamil Khorezmi and later graduated from a madrasah and Russian school. Kazy Abdullah taught him languages. He perfectly spoke Persian and Arabic and was very good at classic Oriental Poetry. In 1906, with the help of his father he defined tambour notes for the first time in Middle Asia.

Is located southeast of Pahlavan Mahmud complex, it was built by foreman Kalandar Kochim on the order of Muhammad Rahimkhan II. Atajanbay Madrasah adjoins Mazari Sharif Madrasah on the eastern side. The entrance to the Madrasah is organized at the southern butt wall through a single vestibule room, which is a cross-shaped domed hall opening onto the yard with a large arch. There is no decor with the only exception of the entrance portal composed of doubled brickwork with inserted green decoration bricks.

It is located opposite the western corner of Tash Khauli. It was built by Muhammad Amin Inaq. His small son Qutli Murad (Bala Khan) who had been killed in the struggle for the throne was buried in the madrasah. The shape of the construction site affected the building architecture; rectangular if viewed from above, it has a frontal composition and is elongated in the transverse direction. Nevertheless, the general principle of placing living hujras around the yard and public halls at the entrance part was preserved. The well-proportioned portal is flanked by one-storied wings divided into two sections by dead niches with towers - guldasts - on the corners.

The Madrasah is located in the western part of Ichan-Kala. Muhammad Amin-Khan Madrasah is the largest two-storey madrasah not only in Khiva but also in comparison to other buildings in the Middle Asia. In addition to being an important spiritual school was possessing substantial vaquf property and income, it also housed the registry office of the Highest Muslim Court. The architecture of the Madrasah is quite remarkable: here, for the first time in Khiva, comfortable two-room residential hujras were built on the ground floor, as well as loggias in hijras facing the outer facades on the first floor. The madrasah facades are decorated with glazed tiles. Presently it houses a hotel, tourist agency, exchange office, air ticket office and cafe.

It is located to the east of Kunya Ark Citadel. The Khans full name was Sayyid Muhammad Rahim Bakhadur Khan (people called him Madrimkhan II). He wrote poems under the pseudonym Feruz and ordered the madrasah construction which was completed in 1876. Muhammad Rahimkhan Madrasah is one of the biggest in Khiva and the most famous one in the Middle Asia. Construction of a large madrasah with 76 hujras was a logical continuation of Muhammad Rahimkhan's educational activities. The Madrasah consists of two yards with one-storey hujra cells in the inner yard. Further in the yard is a two-storey building with a high portal of the Madrasah main facade. Inside is the main yard with a row of arched hujras. The vestibule consists of eight domed sections in a bent passage, the largest number among madrasahs in the Middle Asia. The Madrasah consists of darskhana, library, winter and summer mosques. Majolica is generously used in tympanums, ornamental stripes and three quarter columns on the facade. The brickwork used is paired terracotta bricks with green stripes.

This Madrasah is located in the center of Ichan-Kala next to Yussuf Yassulbashi Madrasah. It was built in 1841 by Musa Tura, the son of Rakhmankuli Inaq, who in his turn was the grandson of Muhammad Rakhim I and Allah Kuli Khan's nephew. Descendants of the Khan's dynasty were titled Tura. In 1855 Musa Tura was killed at the war with Turkmen yomuds and buried in the madrasah. The madrasah is trapezium-shaped when viewed from above, elongated in south-north direction. The madrasah consists of two yards, a vestibule of two domes, hujras, mosque and darskhama. The madrasah was restored and houses a craft shop now.

The Madrasah is located in the eastern part of Ichan-Kala in front of Hojashberdibiy madrasah. It was erected by Allah Kuli Khan's uncle Qutlugh Murad Inaq between 1804 and 1812. According to the legends, Qutlugh Murad Inaq expressed a wish to be buried in the madrasah that he had built. However, he died in Dishan-Kala; it was considered to be a bad sign to bring the deceased into Ichan-Kala through the city gate. That's why the clergy used a clever trick: Ichan-Kala walls at the eastern gate were pulled down to include the madrasah into the Dishan-Kala territory. The body was carried through the gap in the wall and buried in the madrasah entrance part under the floor of the central vestibule room. It was the first completely two-storey madrasah in Khiva comprising 81 hujras. The building is composed along the longitudinal axis with a four-ayvan yard and connected with residential hudjras for students and teachers. There is a well - sardoba - covered with a dome in the yard. Qutlugh Murad Inaq madrasah is the only monument in Khiva where non-glazed relief-stamped terracotta was used. Corner guldasta of the main facade are deco-rated with terracotta tiles with non-recurring pattern - guirikh.

It is located in the center of Ichan-Kala in front of the entrance to Pahlavan Mahmud Mausoleum. It was erected by slaves captured in 1718 by Sberghazi Khan during his raid on Korasan and Meshkhed; together with the loot 5,000 slaves were brought from there. Sherghazi Khan promised to free the slaves after the construction of the madrasah was finished but did everything possible to delay the completion. Infuriated slaves killed Sherghazi Khan in the uncompleted madrasah in 1720. His Mausoleum is connected to the western corner of the madrasah's main facade. The starting dates and date of completion of the madrasah construction can be found in the work of historian Munis. Serghazi Khan madrasah is among the oldest and largest in Khiva. Its entrance lies two meters below the street level due to the natural drop of relief and the growth of cemetery layers next to the Pahlavan Mahmud Mausoleum. This madrasah is one- and two-storey building (with two stories at the entrance) comprising a four-ayvan yard, suite of vestibule rooms and a lecturing hall at the transverse axis of the entrance group. Representatives of Khiva Khanate were not the only ones who got education at this madrasah; there were students from Turkmenistan, including famous Turkmen poet Makhtumkuli.

It is adjoining the northern walls of Islam Khodja Madrasah, it was built by a scribe Talib Makhsum, one of the Khan's confidants. The construction was supervised by Khiva's craftsmen Usto Khudaybergen Khodja and Usto Kalandar Kochim. Mostly this madrasah trained calligraphers. The center of the Madrasah composition is a rectangular yard, which includes asymmetrically located rooms. The portal is decorated with brick technique called sharafa. The upper dandana includes scattered green bricks, white a blue tiles.

The madrasah is located in the western part of Pahlavan Mahmud Mausoleum. It was erected by Yaqubbay Khodja, a prosperous Khiva merchant. The Madrasah is rectangular when viewed from above and elongated along the west-east longitudinal axis. The vestibule group is limited to a single pass-through domed room, which opens onto the yard with an arched doorway. There is a small domed mosque in the north-eastern corner of the Madrasah. As different from larger madrasahs, hujras adjoin the yard on the long side instead of the short one.

The Madrasah is located opposite Musa Tura Madrasah, it was built by the master Kalandar Kochum with the money of Yussuf Yassaulbashi, head of the Khan's police. Yassaulbashi controlled prisons, took care of the Khan's security, guarded secret documents and was the commander of military units consisting of hired nomadic tribes. The yassaulbashi's office was at the Tash Khauli palace. Yussuf Yassaulbashi Madrasah is a typical madrasah, rectangular if viewed from above, with small guldasta on the corners. Presently this Madrasah houses offices of a Makhallya council.

It is located across the square opposite Ata-Darvaza. Construction of the Madrasah was initiated by one of Khiva Khan's sons but after the pedestal was completed he died, and the work was halted for four years. Bikajan Bika, Muhammad Rahimkhan II's sister, decided to finish the construction. But the work was resumed without first getting the Khan's permission, and the latter prohibited unauthorized construction. Thus the work was frozen for further seven years. Later, when the court informed the Khan, that it was his sister who was building the Madrasah, permission was granted and the Madrasah was completed. The Madrasah appeared in the area of highly respected burial of Sheikh Kalandar Bobo. The name of the crafts-man who actually built the complex was Usta Avul. Four meters from the portal, almost in the center of the main facade is a minaret.

It was erected on the order of Khiva's Khan Isfandiyarkhan around the tomb of Khorezmshakh killed in 1622 by Arab Muhammadkhan's son Ilbars. The one-storey Madrasah is elongated from the south to the north. There are a winter mosque and 12 hujras at the Madrasah. In 1918 Isfandiyarkhan was buried in one of the hujras after he had been killed by Turkmens. When the Khanate was abolished, the Madrasah housed a school.

It is located at the crossing of K.Baltayev and Anash Khalfa Streets, it was erected by one of the most influential officials and advisors of Khan Muhammad Rahim II. Mamat Marama Madrasah and Mosque represent a type of complex, simultaneously designed and constructed buildings, which combine the functions of a madrasah and a quarter mosque with a minaret. The Madrasah had in its possession 7327 tanaps of vaquf lands (1 tanap - 334.4 m2 ). The building is elongated from the south to the north and made of square baked bricks. The facade faces the south and is shifted somewhat to the west. Three corners, with the exception of the southwestern one, are flanked with small corner guldasta towers. Protruding in the southwestern corner is an assembly of auxiliary rooms of the mosque and minaret, which adjoin the two-domed straight vestibule.

The Madrasah is located at the crossing of Palvan Kari and Kariev streets. This Madrasah was built by a rich Khiva's merchant Palvan Kari. Palvan Kari was one of the Muhammad Rahimkhan II's confidants. He played a major part in improving trade relations with Russia, Bukhara and Turkey. With the income received in those deals Palvan Kari decided to erect this architectural complex. Ruzmat, Masharip's son, was in charge of the construction. The Madrasah is elongated from the south to the north and consists of 17 hujras, summer and winter mosques and a tall minaret. Decorative elements are concentrated on the main facade only. Those are an entire row of green ornamental bricks over a double sharafa which crowns the portal, and small green domes of the corner guldasta

It is located in Dishan-Kala, in a picturesque place near aryk Sirchali, it was built after the death of Khiva's Khan Sayyid Muhammadkhan by his son Sayyid Muhammad Rahimkhan II (Feruz). Muhammed Murat (Matmurat), Commander-in-Chief of the Khan's army, supervised the construction.

The Madrasah is located in Dishan-Kala at the crossing of R. Allaberganov and Tort Shavvaz Streets. Construction started in 1875 and was fully completed in 1885 during the rule of Muhammad Rahimkhan II. It was a cult memorial ensemble; at the present, there are three madrasahs, mosque, khauz (pond), minaret and mausoleum. The buildings are skillfully structured around a square khauz lined with trees on the perimeter. Next to it is located a sardoba. The center of the whole ensemble is the mosque - a capital four-column domed building with one-sided four-row ayvan on carved wood columns at the main facade. There is a small minaret at the mosque. Additionally, the complex includes three small dilapidated madrasahs with, immured entrances, used as cemeteries, as well as a mazar-mausoleum. Yafandiyarj I and his three military leaders were buried in the three immured madrasahs and the mazar. For this reason, people call this complex "Tort Shavvaz" ("Four. Braves").

It is located on the territory of Pahlavan Mahmud collective farm in Khiva district. It was erected by one of Khiva's Khan Muhammad Rahimkhan II's confidants Ibrahim Khodja. The Madrasah is a one-storey building elongated from the south to the north. Though smaller in size than Allah Kuli Khan and Muhammad Rahimkhan madrasahs, it owned much larger vaquf lands than the above mentioned madrasahs.

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