Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan Map, Map of
Uzbekistan, country of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan is one of five republics in Central Asia which
used to be part of the Soviet Union. It is bordered on the west and north
by Kazakhstan, on the east by Kyrgyzstan, on the southeast by
Tajikistan, and on the south by Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. It was formerly the
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics (USSR). Uzbekistan includes the Karakalpak Autonomous Republic,
which occupies about 37 percent of Uzbekistan's territory. Uzbekistan's
land area totals about 447,400 sq km (about 172,750 sq mi).
the capital and chief industrial and cultural center.
Land and Resources
Uzbekistan's terrain is composed
primarily of plains such as the Turan Lowland. Plains occupy about
four-fifths of the republic's territory. Branches of the
Tien Shan and Pamir mountains rise in the east and northeast, with the highest elevation
in the republic reaching 4643 m (about 15,234 ft).
Earthquakes, such as the one that destroyed large portions of Toshkent in
1966, are common. The climate is desert continental; temperatures
fluctuate greatly over the course of a year. Average daily temperatures in
January range from -6° to 2° C (21.2° to 35.6° F), and in July from 32° to
45° C (89.6° to 113° F). Precipitation is scant, and irrigation is
necessary for crop cultivation, except along mountain slopes. The
north-central part of the republic is occupied by the
Qyzylqum, one of the
largest deserts in the world.
Most of Uzbekistan's rivers drain
internally or dissipate before reaching a terminal body of water. The
two largest rivers, the Amu Darya and
Syrdarya, flow into
the Aral Sea. They have been heavily tapped for irrigation, and as a
result, the surface of the Aral Sea has declined sharply in recent
decades, with severe environmental damage to the surrounding ecosystem.
The republic contains many large artificial lakes and reservoirs, such
as Lake Aidar, which is fed by irrigation runoff water. The republic
also boasts a great variety of wildlife. Desert fauna include the
extremely rare Saiga antelope and a large lizard that can reach lengths
of 1.6 m (5 ft). The rare snow leopard can be found at higher
elevations, which are abounding with several varieties of mountain goat.
With about 26,021,000
inhabitants (according to the report pubd in March 2006),
Uzbekistan remains the third largest nation in CIS after Russia and Ukraine.
The country has one of the highest birth rates in post-Soviet space. It is
expected that the population of Uzbekistan will reach 40 million by 2020. Uzbeks, a Turkic-speaking people with an Islamic heritage, constitute 74
percent of the population. Russians are the largest minority with 5.3
percent. As in most other former Soviet republics in Central Asia, the
size of the Russian minority has decreased in recent years, as thousands
have emigrated to Russia and elsewhere. Tajiks (4.7 percent) and Kazakhs
(4.1 percent) are the next largest minorities, followed by Tatars,
Karakalpaks, Koreans, Kyrgyz, Ukrainians, Turkmens, and Turks. The
Russians in Uzbekistan live almost exclusively in Toshkent and other
industrial centers. Tajiks are concentrated in the ancient cities of
Samarkand. Karakalpaks reside principally in their home
region, the Karakalpak Autonomous Republic.
Uzbekistan has negative balance of external migration. According to
official data, some 98,000 people, or up 12,300 people year-on-year,
migrated in 2005. Main migration partners of Uzbekistan are Russia and
Kazakhstan. The country receives about US$500 million annually from export
of labor forces.
Most of the
population of Uzbekistan lives in rural settlements. Slightly more than 36 percent of the total population live in urban areas. With a population of
about 2,400,000, Toshkent, the capital, is the largest city in Central
Asia and the fourth largest in the former USSR (after Moscow, Saint
Petersburg, and Kyiv). Other major cities, which are concentrated in the
eastern half of the country, include Samarkand, Namangan, Andijon, and
Bukhara. The country's population growth is high, about 300,000
per year. Average lifetime made up 69.4 among male and 73.8 among female.
Quoted from Kurt E. Engelmann.
"Uzbekistan," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R). Late amendments by